Or Parochial Survey
Drawn up from the communications of the clergy
By William Shaw Mason, Esq. M.R.I.A.
Remembrancer and receiver of First Fruits, and
Secretary to the Board of Public Records
Of Glenavy, Camlin and Tullyrusk
Parishes of Glenavy, Camlin and Tullyrusk
(Diocese of Connor, and County of Antrim)
By the Rev. Edward Cupples, L.L.B. Vicar
1. The name of the Parish, Situation, Extent, &c.
The union of Glenavy, written in some ancient records, Lynavy and Lanaway, is composed of three parishes, Glenavy, Camlin and Tullyrusk. The name may be derived from “Glanna-obhin,” signifying the pleasant glen; or from “Glan-amhan,” denoting the glen of the river; for, the position of the town land of Glenavy, along the margin of a handsome glen, through which a large river runs for a considerable distance, will give countenance to either of these etymologies. It was anciently situated in the terror Tory of Killultagh, half barony of Upper Massareene, and county of Antrim. On the north and east, it is bounded by the river of Crumlin and the parish of Belfast; on the west, by Lough Neagh; and on the south, by the parishes of Aghagallan, Ballinderry and Derraghy. In figure it somewhat resembles a crescent, being about four English miles and a half broad, and nearly twelve miles long at its extreme point containing 17,889A. 1R. 20P. English measure.
There are four constable wicks; Upper Glenavy, Lower Glenavy, Camlin and Tullyrusk. That part of the union called Glenavy, comprehends eighteen town lands, namely, Ballypitmave, Ballynacoy, Tullynewbane, Ballymonymore, Ballyminimore, Tullynewbank, Glenavy, Ballymoate, Crew, Carnkilly, Ballymacricket, Aghadolgan, Edenturcher, Ballyvorally, Ballyvanen, Feumore, Great Deer-park, and Little Deer-park containing 7841A. 1R. 35P. English measure, including the soil of Loughbeg.
Camlin contains 3451A. 1R. 25P. and has eleven town lands, as follow; Ballydonaghey, Gobb, (now called Gobrana,) Ballycamlen, Lanygarve, Ballycessy, Ballyvollan, Aghnederagh, Ballytromery,Ballygortgarve, Ballymacreevan, and Ballybanoghey, alias Ballyshanaghill. Tullyrusk comprehends 4596A. 1R. 30P and has four town lands; Budor, Dunkilltrod; Tullyrousk,and Knockern.
(These distances are taken in straight lines crossing each other at right angles; the breadth being is the direction of north and south, and the length of east and west. The names of the above town lands are given as they appear and are spelled in a survey of the year 1729, with the exception of four which are not correct in that map.)
Of these names only eight appear to have been in existence in the year 1621, namely, Ballyaghdalgan, and Ballyvereely, in Glenavy; and Ballygartgarragh, Ballycromriffe, Ballyveolane, Ballytonaghie, and Ballyshanaghill, in Camlin. (Grand Inquisition, county of Downs, An. 1621, in MSS.)
Others which were in existence at that time have since been disused and forgotten, or changed for new names, such as Ballycrommoigye, Ballymaderaige, Ballynekeanagh. Ballymacbryan, Ballyclonigan, Ballykillagh-henry, Ballyaghkernan, and Ballynegaruffe, whose situation at this distance of time, it is impossible to determine.
Hence may be formed some conjecture, as to the cultivation and improvement of the different parts of the union, at the period of the year 1621. If we attend to the reasons which usually operate in giving names to different tracts, we shall find that they originate in the progress of agriculture and civilization; and that those places only would receive names, which were inhabited by man, and cultivated by his industry. For after settlements were once formed, and a separation of property had taken place, the occupants would find it necessary to denominate their respective shares by particular names, for the conveniency of distinguishing them from each other. This was the actual progress of things in the first settlements of America, and other uncultivated places. No reason could operate in giving names to the several tracts of land covered by an immense wood. Boate in his Natural History of Ireland, informs us that “there were great forests in his time, in the county of Antrim, especially in Killultagh.” Connecting this fact with what has been said, it would appear that Glenavy having in the year 1621 but few town lands, was much covered with wood, and therefore thinly inhabited and partially cultivated; that Camlin having more town lands than Glenavy, though inferior to it in extent, was mostly cleared of wood, and more generally cultivated and inhabited; and that Tullyrusk was in the same condition with Glenavy, or else some of the ancient town lands above enumerated, belonged to it, and have been changed.
The climate is moist, with frequent returns of rain. This may be attributed in a great degree, to the situation of the country between the two waters of Lough Neagh and Belfast Lough; to the vapours of which it is therefore constantly exposed.
The surface of the union forms a declivity, which descends from the base of the Black mountain to the shores of Lough neagh. The surface of Tullyrusk commencing at the Black mountain, is mountainous, bare, and unimproved; that of Glenavy and Camlin stretching along the banks of Lough Neagh, is more even, rich, and well cultivated. The general nature of the soil is clay. The two Deer-parks, Feumore, some parts of Pitmave, and the Crew, contain marl. Along the borders of Lough Neagh, for a quarter of a mile distant from the shore, and in several spots bordering on the rivers of Glenavy and Camlin, the soil is sandy. Let 100 parts represent the whole:- 65 parts will be clay; 25 sand and 10 marl; therefore that which predominates is clay.
The union is washed, for the space of five miles, by Lough neagh. This vast body of fresh water is about twenty English miles in length, and nearly fifteen miles in breadth; covering a space of 97,775 English acres of land. Irish historians inform us that it burst out in the reign of Lugaidh Rhiabderg, and was called Lion-Mhuine. This name would appear to have the same import with the present, and both to have originated in a supposed healing quality possessed by the lake; for Lion, signifies a lough, and Mhuine and Neasg, a sore or ulcer. The names of Lough Sydney and Lough Chichester, in honor of the lords Deputies Sir Henry Sydney, and Sir Arthur Chichester, were successively given to it; but they have been unable to supplant the more ancient, though less refined appellation.
Two remarkable properties have been ascribed to Lough Neagh; a power of healing diseases, already mentioned; and a power of petrifying wood and other substances. As to the first; – an analysis of this water discovers nothing to warrant such a property; and no difference has been found to exist between it and the waters of other lakes in the kingdom. The influx probably of some mineral waters from the neighbouring land, may have imparted a medicinal quality to particular parts, and hence a general quality ascribed to the whole. With regard to the property of converting wood, and other substances, into stone; this seems not to rest on better grounds. The absence of any peculiarity is the water is irreconcilable with its existence; and the circumstance of similar petrifactions being found in the land, and at considerable distances from the lake, renders the supposition altogether untenable.
(The situation of a bed of petrifaction, at Aghaness, near the mouth of Glenavy river, will shew by its depth, that the water could not have been the agent in this operation. A bed of blue clay, four feet deep, is next the wood; above that a bed of red clay three feet deep. These two strata have evidently been covered by a bank of twelve feet, that has been washed away by the encroachments of the lake. So that in the whole this collection of petrifaction had been covered to a depth of nineteen feet. Another fact will shew that the water, when the substance was within its reach, did not cause petrifaction. In the year 1796, a canoe, composed of an entire block of oak, about 25 feet long, by 4 wide, was discovered immediately under the surface on the shore of Lough Neagh, at Crumlin Water-foot. This vessel was of a rude construction, the bottom not being formed in a keel, and must have existed from a remote period. It was decayed in may places, but no where exhibited the smallest appearance of petrifaction.)
Lough Neagh abounds in fresh water fish of different kinds, as, salmon, trout, eel, roach, bream, pike, pollen or fresh water herring, called in England shad, and a fish perhaps peculiar to this lake, called the fresh water whiting. There are two species of trout, distinguished by their size; the dolochan, being in length from fourteen inches to eighteen inches, said to be peculiar to Lough Neagh; and the buddagh, a large trout, weighing in many instances, thirty pounds. But the most singular fish to be net with in this lake, is that caught in Sandy bay, on the shores of Glenavy, known by the name of the Gillaroo trout, which possesses the curious property of having a stomach like the gizzard of a fowl. It is called by the fishers the shell-trout, from its subsisting on shell-fish of a very minute size. The writer has examined the stomach, and found in it every appearance of a gizzard. The flesh, when boiled, is of a pale yellow colour. Mr. Barrington has given an account of this strange fish in the philosophical Transactions of 1774, page 116; for which he and the Royal Society, have fallen under the severe lash of the author of the Pursuits of Literature, by whom the account is improperly ridiculed and discredited.
In Lough Neagh, at the distance of one mile, two furlongs, and two perches English, from the shore, is a small island, called Ram’s Island, containing about seven acres of ground. (The proprietor of this island has lately in an advertisement, stated its contents to be 13 acres acres. The difference between the two statements were from his having taken his measurement at the summer level, when a great deal of barren sand is exposed to view.)
It is the property of Mr. James Whittle, formerly of this parish, now a merchant in Liverpool, who has greatly beautified the surface, by planting trees and shrubs of various kinds, as so to render it a handsome and picturesque object to the surrounding country. There is an orchard, garden, and garden-house in it, in which a man and his family constantly reside. A prescriptive title to this little spot was acquired by an old fisherman, belonging to the union, by name David McArevy; by whom it was disposed of, about ten years ago, to Conway Mc. Niece, Esq. for the sum of one hundred guineas; who again exchanged it with Mr. Whittle, the present proprietor, for a small farm adjoining his own.
(Since these papers have been prepared for the press, this island has again been sold to the Right Hon. Earl O’Neill)
Lough Neagh has been frozen three times in the memory of man; once in the memorable frost of 1739, again in January, 1784, when the ice was of such strength, that many persons passed over on it to Ram’s Island; and again in the January of the present year, (1814) when such was the intensity of the frost, that Lieut. Colonel Heyland undertook, and accomplished the hazardous expedition of riding his horse from Drumlin Water-foot to ram’s Island; and the singular novelty was exhibited of a drag chase on the ice, round the island, with Mr. Stafford Whittle’s pack of harriers. (This gentleman, (Heyland) rode round Lough Neagh in the year 1804, for a considerable wager, which he performed in less than five hours, being a circuit of 80 miles, 6½ furlongs, English measure.)
In May 1604, Sir Arthur Chichester received a grant of the fisheries of Lough Neagh, and was appointed admiral and commander-in-chief thereof, with full power and authority to dispose of all shipping, boats and vessels thereon; which grants were confirmed by letters patent, dated he 19th of James 1. These grants were afterwards surrendered by Edward Viscount Chichester, to Charles 1, to comply with the King’s occasions, in consideration of a pension of £40 per annum, and liberty for himself to fish. Many arrears being due on this pension in the reign of Charles 11, the fisheries of Lough Neagh, with the soil thereof, and islands therein, were again granted in the 13th of that king, to the family of Chichester, by a patent purporting to bear date the 3d. of July.
Near Lough Neagh, and separated from it by a narrow neck of land, known by the name of the Deer-park, is a beautiful sheet of water, of an oval form, called Loughbeg, or the Little lake. This body of water covers 625 acres of land; and is stored with pike, bream, trout, perch, roach, eels, and a variety of wild fowl. An ingenious attempt to drain it was made about the year 1740, by Arthur Dobbs, Esq then agent to Lord Conway. (This man, Arthur Dobbs, was the author of an excellent pamphlet on the trade of Ireland, and of another on the Rate of Interest. He died Governor of North Carolina.) For this purpose he erected a windmill at the place where the isthmus between the lakes is narrowest; which acting upon buckets, threw the water into the other lake, In this way the lake was emptied; but the water returning again, either through springs, or as some allege, (Sic) by a subterraneous communication with Lough Neagh, the scheme, after various experiments was abandoned.
In a sequestered spot in this lake, called Sally Island, tradition relates that the pious and learned Jeremiah Taylor, who was chaplain to Charles I, and Bishop of Down and Connor, in the year 1661, frequently composed his admired works; probably, among others, his celebrated “Doctor Dubitantium,” the preface of which is dated from his study in Portmore, in Killultagh, on the banks of Lough-beg.
There are two rivers of considerable magnitude, belonging to the union; namely, Crumlin River, which, rising at the Black Mountain discharges itself into Lough Neagh; and Glenavy River, rising in the mountains of Ballymuckilward, and discharging itself also into Lough Neagh. These rivers abound in trout, eels, bream, pike, and perch.
This country being either under cultivation or pasture, does not contain much timber. The only plantation of grown wood of any magnitude, is one at Cherryvalley, in the town land of Ballymacreevan, covering a few acres of land, and belonging to the Countess of Longford. A clause has been introduced by the Marquis of Hertford into his leases, binding his tenantry to the planting of a proportionable quantity of timber which in process of time, it is expected, will have the effect of rendering wood more abundant.
It has already appeared, that there were great forests here in the time of James 1, and for many years after. Considerable vestiges of them remained so late as fifty years ago, and fourteen hundred acres, covered with forest trees, on the banks of Lough Neagh, were held as a park by the Lords Conway. This park was stored with deer, pheasants, jays, turkeys, hares, rabbits, and a variety of game. A neat lodge was built in it by Lord Conway, for the purpose of enjoying the pleasures of the field with greater convenience. About thirty years ago, a considerable portion of it was leased to tenants, by whom it has been altogether cleared of wood, and is now well cultivated. The remaining part, forming a peninsula with Lough Neagh, was enclosed by a wall constructed at the entrance; and continued for some time a receptacle for deer, under the name of the Hogg, or Little Deer-park. This park was also given up to cultivation, about twelve years ago, and leased to tenants; since which time, it has been entirely divested of timber, and reduced under the dominion of the plough. Here grew an oak tree called, from its extraordinary size and dimensions, the Royal Oak. This noble tree was forty-two feet in circumference; the principal arm was sold for an axis of a mill; and the other branches built a vessel of fifty tons, called the Royal Oak. The bark sold for forty guineas; the trunk was sold for £121. 10s. The ground in which it grew, was a very stiff clay. This great tree being decayed at the roots, sunk under the pressure of time, about forty years ago on a calm day. (The above particulars were related to William Smith, Esq, agent to the Marquis of Hertford, by Tho? ?on, his lordship’s park-keeper. This oak tree is noticed in E?) Near to its stately brother grew another oak tree, of an unusual size, called the Broad Oak, from the great expansion if its branches. The trunk of this tree was about sixteen feet high, and twelve feet in circumference. The branches extended to the distance of four English perches, or twenty-two yards diameter. It was entirely hollow, occasioned by the trunk having been chipped with a turf spade, whence it absorbed moisture, and rotted. When it fell, it was therefore of little value.
There is no waste ground in the union; and only an hundred acres of turf-bog, at the Brown Moss, in the parish of Tullyrusk. There was formerly a quantity of moss in the Deer-park, which has been reclaimed, and converted into a meadow.
Of the mineral belonging to the union, the most remarkable are those beautiful stones found on the shore of the lake, and in the land, at a distance of to miles from the shore, called Lough Neagh pebbles. These stones are of different colours; some of them being white, some yellow, some red, and others variegated. Those of a reddish cast are the most beautiful, and most rare; they are to be met with in the land; where also the largest, as well as the most valuable pebbles, are generally found. One of these in the writer’s possession, of a rich yellow colour, and weighing one pound, two ounces and an half, was found at the distance of a mile from the shore. There is another kind of pebble, called from its great lustre, the brilliant; but it is so extremely rare, that the writer has never had the good fortune to meet with a specimen.
The Lough Neagh pebble is of an extreme hardness, and next to the diamond, most difficult to be cut and polished. Hence it possesses this advantage over other stones. That when it is engraved, the impressions produced by it never lose their sharpness. Mineralogists consider it a chalcedony; (There is so great a resemblance between these pebbles, and certain kinds of opal, cornelian, cats-eye, and mocho stones, that it is not easy to be certain on the subject. What adds to the difficulty is, that they are found loose upon the beach, and none of them attached to any rock or stone. It is supposed that the rocks around the lake, from Lurgan to Coagh, (going northward) being all basaltic, and some of them being washed by the lake, the chalcedony (which is found in other rocks of that kind, along the sea-coast, and the quarries of the interior of the country often containing chalcedony in nodules and veins) was detached from them, mixed with sand and gravel, and rolled into their present form upon the beach) as such, its specific gravity is two-sevenths heavier than water; and its component parts are 84 of pure silicious earth, and 16 of the earth of alum or clay. The great labour and art requisite to cut and polish it, make it of equal value with the cornelian, when applied to the purposes of use, or ornament.
Singular petrifactions of wood, called Hone stone, are found in Lough Neagh, and in the land: they are composed, for the most part, of the roots of the trees, and generally have the appearance of oak. A remarkable specimen, being an entire root, a cube of five feet, is to be seen in the river of Crumlin, near Cider Court. Although these differ radically from the Lough Neagh pebbles, they are both composed of silicious earth; but the former, notwithstanding they strike fire with steel, are yet inflammable. They are always black at the heart, which is owing to the matter of the wood not being quite wasted, while its interstices have been filled, and most of its substance replaced, by the flinty matter being filtered into it. Dr. Hutton thinks that the flint has been melted, and infected through the wood with violence: but the beautiful, loosely adhering, and shining crystals, that are often spread through the cracks, and among the fibres of the wood, have greatly the appearance of the infiltration of some liquid, from which the crystals have been gradually deposited. (Mr. William Molyneux quotes the physician Anselm Boetius, as asserting in his Historia Lapidum et Gemmarum, that “the part of the wood that is buried in Lough Neagh will become iron; that part touched by the water becomes stone, and that above the water remains wood.” This opinion is destitute of foundation; no authenticated instance of it having been produced. Molyneux found, that when the stone was sufficiently calcined, it applies briskly, and in great quantities, to the magnet; but that it will not do so when crude. Francis Nevil, Esq engineer, who drew a plan for making the Glen Bog navigable from the Lough, through part of the Upper Bann, to Newry, denies that the water of the lake has a petrifying quality, but that the soil has it for miles round the lake. See Boate’s Nat. Hist. From page 116 to 122.) Petrifactions of hazel nuts, and masses of corallites, called petrified rushes and honeycombs, have been thrown up at different times.
The other minerals belonging to the union, are white stones, called quartz or felts; grey stones, containing that shining matter like silver, called mica; a good quantity of silex; common land stones; black stone quarried, in which are steatites, or soap-stones, of different colours, vulgarly called rock marrow; and a rude kind of basalt, near the mouth of Glenavy river.
Some years ago, it having been suggested to the Marquis of Hertford, that there was a strong probability of coal being in his estate, his Lordship sent over two skilful miners from Lady Irwine’s collieries, who made several trials by boring, but without effect. At Sandy Bay, in Lough Neagh, they penetrated through a stratum of black wood in a state of decay, and perhaps in progress towards coal, if some theories of its formation may be depended on.
The following is a note of the commencement of their experiment, in the lands of William Farr, dated the 29th of October, 1801.
Yards Feet Inch Gravel and clay 3 1 6 Dark Clay 14 1 0 Black Wood 0 0 6 Blue Clay 2 0 0 Black Wood 0 0 7 Blue Clay 2 1 5
Modern Buildings, &c.
There are two towns in the union; Glenavy, and Crumlin. Glenavy is a small town, situated about the centre of the union. It is of an angular form, and stands on two hills; between which an extensive river runs, dividing the town into two parts; one of which belongs to the parish of Glenavy, the other to the parish of Camlin. There are sixty-eight houses in it, containing 309 inhabitants; of whom 153 are males, 156 females; 163 protestants, 37 protestant dissenters, and 110 Roman Catholics; the average number of souls to each house being nearly five and a half. It is a post town, and is distant seventy-four miles from Dublin, seven from Lisburn, and twelve from Belfast; Miss Jane Quigley, is the Deputy post-mistress. This town, since the death of Dogherty Gorman Esq. who lived and expended a large income in it, has been on the decline. The erection, however, of a cotton manufactory in it, by Dr. Forsythe and other, may tend, in some degree, to its revival.
Trades and professions in the town of Glenavy.
Apothecary 1 Grocers 5 Taylors 3 Smiths 2 Flax-dresser 1 Innkeeper 1 Turner 1 Farmers 6 Shoemakers 2 Miller 1 Carpenter 1 Publicans 2 Mason 1 Weavers 3 Labourers 14
Crumlin, (a corruption of Camlin) is a neat, regularly built town, consisting of one long and wide street from the centre of which issues a smaller one, leading to Antrim. It is situated on the verge of the parish of Camlin, and along the river of that name. By a census taken by the writer, in the year 1808, there was 89 inhabited houses in it, and 3 uninhabited. At that time, it contained 430 inhabitants; of whom 202 were males, 228 females; 127 protestants, 180 protestant dissenters, and 123 Roman Catholics; the average number of inhabitants to each house being nearly five. In the return made in the year 1813, pursuant to act of Parliament, the number of inhabitants was 587; of whom 285 were males, 302 females; 174 protestants, 246 protestant dissenters, and 167 Roman catholics. This is a modern town, and appears to be increasing. About fifty years ago it consisted of only two houses, one of which was a public house, and the other a smith’s forge. The continuity of Mr. Mc Aulay’s flour mills, and the Rev. Mr. Alexander’s academy, have probably contributed to its prosperity. A post, which arrives six days in the week, was established here about six years ago. Mrs. Sarah Campbell is the deputy post-mistress. The distance from Dublin is 76 miles; from Lisburn, 9; and from Belfast 10. The town is held immediately under Lieutenant Colonel Heyland, whose elegant seat of Glendarragh is contiguous to it; and under whose auspices it has attained its present prosperity.
Trades and Professions in Crumlin.
Apothecaries 2 Weavers Linen manufacturers 13 Grocers 10 Cloth shops 2 Delft shops 3 Tanners 2 Shoemakers 8 Tailors 2 Bakers 2 Miller 1 Mason 1 Smiths 3 Milliner 1 Butchers 2 Carpenters 4 Cartmaker 1 Dyer 1 Nailors 3 Flaz-dresser 1 Publicans 8 Innkeeper 1 Surveyor 1 Watchmaker 1 Painter and Glazier 1 Labourers 24 Various dealers 7
There are several gentleman’s seats in the union. Thistleborough, the residence of Stafford Whittle, Esq. is a handsome, modern building, 61 feet in length, by 41 in width. It is situated in the townland of Ballyshanoghey, on the left of the road leading from Moira to Crumlin, being about the distance of half a mile from the latter. The farm, consisting of about 300 acres, in high condition, is laid out with taste, and planted with trees and shrubs of various descriptions. The house commands a pleasing view of Lough Neagh, and Ram’s Island.
Cherryvalley, the seat of John Armstrong, Esq. is situated in the town land of Ballymacreevan, on the left of the road leading from Lough Neagh to Crumlin from the latter of which it is distant about a quarter of a mile. It is a good house, having been altered and improved by the proprietor. The grounds are disposed with judgement, and ornamented with young planting.
A large house, not yet finished, called Lakefield, has been erected in the town land of Ballyshanoghey, by Mr. Hyndman, a West Indian merchant. Its dimension are 80 feet long, by 70 wide, with two wings in the rear. The situation is on an eminence fronting the lake, and on the right of the road leading from Glenavy to Crumlin; being distant from the latter a quarter of a mile. There is a demesne of 112 acres, which is planted and in good condition.
Goremount, the seat of William Gore, Esq. is situated in the town land of Ballymacricket, about a quarter of a mile from Glenavy, on the left of the road leading from thence to Moira.
Mr. Whittle’s cottage of Glenconway, distant about a mile from Glenavy, stands on an elevated situation commanding an extensive view of Lough Neagh, and the surrounding country. The grounds exhibit a pleasing surface, and are variegated with planting.
William Gregg, Esq. And Mr. John Fulton, in Knockcairn; Messrs. Whitla, in Gobrana; Mr. Walter Oakman, in Ballyminimore; Mr. John Murray, in Ballypitmave; Mr. Ferguson, at Cidercourt; Messrs Oakman, McNiece, and Sloan, in Pigeontown; and Mr. David McClure, in Budor, have also good houses.
An inn is kept at Glenavy, by Mr. John Feris; and a new and commodious house, in a central situation, has lately been opened for that purpose in Crumlin, by Mr. Arthur Magill. There are, in addition to these thirteen public houses in the union.
The total of inhabited houses is 1082; of houses building, 9; and of houses uninhabited, 42. They are mostly built of stone and lime, mud cabins not being common; in general they are not more than one story; often roughcast and whitewashed; usually thatched, and sometimes slated; the windows, in many instances, and with the doors painted, and one or two rooms floored.
The roads may be distinguished as made or repaired by the county, or by the court Leet of the manor; the former being the public, the latter the bye-roads. The materials of which they are composed, are field stones, broken with a sledge; over which a covering of gravel is sometimes spread. They are in general in good order; where they are not so, may be attributed to the scarcity of materials, which every where exists in this country. Attention to the comforts of the traveller are in many instances apparent. Finger-posts have been erected at Crumlin; there are milestones on the Antrim, Dublin, and Lisburn roads; and in many places the deep and dangerous drains along the old roads, have been filled up. These improvements give a civilized appearance to the country, and evince that the gentleman of it are not unmindful of their duties. The public roads diverging from the town of Glenavy, are, on the north, the road leading to Antrim by Cross-hill, the road to Crumlin, and that to Langford Lodge; on the easr, the road to Belfast, and that to Lisburn by Stoneyford; on the south, the road to Lisburn by the Crew-hill, and the road to Moira and Dublin; and on the west, the road to Lough Neagh.
The great road leading from Lurgan to Antrim, and passing through Glenavy, being under the direction of a turnpike Board, was suffered to go out of repair, so as in some places to be almost impassable for heavy carriages. The funds of the board were altogether inadequate to keep it in order, and were rapidly diminishing, travellers being obliged to take any other way, though longer, in preference to the turnpike road. The interest on the debentures, to which that board was subject, was unpaid for many years. This circumstances, together with a desire to have this useful line of road effectually reported by county presentments, which could not be done while tolls were paid, suggested the idea of offering a composition to the holders of the debentures by way of purchase, as this was the only obstacle to the removal of the gates. The sum of 10l. per cent. was accordingly offered to the proprietors, and accepted by them. By the liberality, and successful exertion of some of the neighbouring noblemen and gentlemen, a subscription was opened, which produced the sum required. The Marquis of Hertford subscribed 100l. And Earl O’Neill 50l; the remainder was paid by the neighbouring gentlemen; and this useful object was accomplished about six years ago. The turnpike gates were immediately removed, and large presentment obtained from the Grand Jury, at each succeeding assizes. The road is now repaired, to the manifest advantage and accommodation of the public.
The bridges, as the roads, may be distinguished into those made by county, and those by the manor. The principal are those over the rivers of Glenavy, and Crumlin. On Glenavy river are four, namely, Knockcairn, Ballydonaghy, Glenavy, and Glenconway. On Crumlin river are six, viz. Thompson’s, Dundrod, Crumlin upper, Crumlin-town, Cidercourt, and Waterfoot. These are in good order, and are repaired at the expence of the county.
The country presents an agreeable surface of hill and dale, watered with frequent rivulets, and variegated by the hand of industry. The scenery along the banks of Lough Neagh, is particularly pleasing; exhibiting rich and highly cultivated grounds, resembling gardens, fringed with luxuriant hedge -rows, and covered with near farm houses, and comfortable cottages, often embosomed in orchards; elegant mansions, and handsome demesnes of country gentlemen, occasionally appearing; these objects being reflected in the glassy surface of the lake, and enriched by its surrounding beauties. The prospect from tne high grounds, is interesting and extensive; that from the Crew-hill commands a view of Lough Neagh, Loughbeg, Rams- Island, Shane’s – castle (the seat of Earl O’Neill,) Langford Lodge (the seat of the Countess of Longford,) part of the counties of Derry, Tyrone, Armagh, Monaghan, Louth, Antrim, and Down; also the towns of Moira, Dungannon, Charlemont, Stewartstown, Lurgan and Hillsborough.
The old church of Glenavy was a plain stone edifice, plastered with roughcast, without a spire or tower and stood immediately in front of the south wall of the present building. It was fifty-eight feet long, by nineteen feet and a half wide; the entrance being on the south, through a porch, on the door of which was formerly inscribed the date 1664. The north and south walls were each supported by two buttresses. There were two rows of seats in it, with a small gallery, containing in all 31 pews, and affording convenient accommodation to about three hundred persons. The time when it was erected, is unknown; but an addition to the west end was made in the year 1717. Being too small for the congregation, it was taken down in the year 1812. Some old people relate, on the authority of persons who were then living, that when the army of James 11 was extending its ravages, this church escaped their notice by its low situation, being concealed in the deep forest which then covered most of the country. Previous to this time, the curate, whose name was Arthur Moore, conformed to the Roman Catholic religion, and occasioned the secession of many of the congregation, and his own expulsion in the succeeding reign.
It is said that the burying ground originally belonging to the church of Glenavy, was situated at some distance from it, in an angle formed by the Glenavy and Pigeontown Roads, near Mr. Forsythe’s house. This tradition is corroborated by the fact, that human skulls and other bones, have been frequently found in that spot.
The church of Camlin is a venerable ruin, overgrown with ivy; and is situated at the verge of the parish, on a precipitous bank overhanging the river of Crumlin; being distant about a quarter of a mile from that town. It is seventy-seven feet long, and twenty-three wide. Although the present floor is on a level with the adjacent ground, the original one appears to have been much beneath it; for there are arches and niches running along the walls, and the present floor rises to the top of them, at a short distance from the roof. The windows are immediately above these arches; that on the east is a long, narrow aperture. A few individuals still continue to bury in the grave-yard.
Tradition relates that this church was destroyed by the wars of Ireland. By this must be understood the wars of James 11, when the churches, and other public edifices, were often occupied by his forces. In this manner, the church of Magheramesk, in a neighbouring parish, was demolished, in order to dislodge a body of Irish, who had stationed themselves in it, for the purpose of annoying an English garrison in that quarter. It could not have been destroyed in the Cromwelian wars, since it appears by the registry of the diocese of Connor, that an ordination was held in it on the 1st of December, 1661, by the celebrated Jeremy Taylor, Bishop of Down and Connor.
The church of Tullyrusk stood in the town land, and on the verge of the parish of that name, being distant from Glenavy about sixty-two feet long, and seventeen wide. There is an extensive and well- enclosed yard, in which the Protestant dissenters, and Roman catholics chiefly bury. In it are the ruins of a school-house.
There are no remarkable monuments belonging to any of these churches. The chalice of the communion-table, which is of silver, has the following inscription:- “This plate was given to the church of Glenavy, by the Officers of the Queen’s regiment of horse, commanded by the Hon, major-General Sir John Lanier, in the yeare 1690. In honorem Ecclesiae Anglicanae.” When Duke Schomberg was stationed at Lisburn, a detachment of his army was quartered at Glenavy, and being well treated by the inhabitants, this chalice appears to have been given in acknowledgment.
In Ram’s Island is one of the ancient round towers of Ireland. It is 43 feet high, and 30 feet 5 inches in circumference; the walls being 2 feet 8¼ inches in thickness. The door faces the south-west, and is distant from the ground a step of about six inches. It is divided into three stories; the first is 14 feet 4½ inches from the surface, and contains the door; in the second is a window facing the south-east; and in the third is a window facing the north, about 3 feet high, and 1½ feet broad. There are two rests for joists; and a projecting stone in the first story, about 5½ feet from the surface. Certain letters or characters appear to be cut on the stone in the inside, but so obliterated by time, as to be illegible. On going into the building there is a hollow sound, or echo, which induced the person who at present lives in the island, to dig five feet below the surface, where he found several human bones, and some coffin boards. A skeleton was discovered near the tower some time ago, and bones and sculls in many parts of the island. These circumstances indicate, that a place of worship once existed here; and sanction the opinion of Dr. Ledwich, that the round towers were appropriated to ecclesiastical purposes; from whence also it may be inferred, that the island, at no very remote period, was a part of the continent.
(When the lake is at the summer level, a bank, or neck of land appears, extending from the island to Gartree-point; in which, it is reported by persons who have examined it, that a paved causeway is discernible.)
There are three ancient sepulchral monuments, called Tumuli, in the union; and thirty-seven artificial mounds. Commonly called Danes-raths. About half a mile above Dundrod, are three of these mounds, in one chain; in the neighbourhood of it, are five in another; and below it are five more in a third. Opposite to them, on the Killead side, and nearly parallel to the river of Crumlin, are fifteen in one chain; and about half a mile further back from the river, are nine more in another chain. These mounds differ, both in construction and dimensions; some are plain, low, circular platforms of earth, without either ditch or trench; (since these papers were prepared for the press, Mr. S. Whittle, in levelling a mound of this plain description on his grounds, found at the bottom of it, towards the centre, the top of an ancient freestone quern, or hand-mill, fourteen inches and a half in diameter, now in the writer‘s possession) others are of a great size, surrounded by a deep trench often filled with water, and enclosed by a lofty bank. The use to which they were applied, has never been clearly ascertained. It has been commonly supposed they were military posts, or places of security and defence; but a little reflection is sufficient to refute such a supposition. They are of too small a surface to contain a formidable number of men; many of them are not elevated more than three of four feet; and others are situated beneath the brow of a hill, whence the occupants could have been overwhelmed with stones, and other engines of destruction. Had they been intended as places of defence, the top, and not the bottom of hills, would have been selected for their station. The late Bishop Percy thought they were places of rendezvous and security for cattle at night, in times when the country wanted enclosures, and abounded with robbers and beasts of prey. Harris (Hist. of Down, p.210.c. xvi. “On the Mounts and Raths of this county, usually ascribed to the Danes.” In the subsequent chapter of this work, the subject of round towers is discussed; and in the two preceding that of natural caves, cromleaghs, &c.) supposes them designed for the habitations of single families; who by means of their raised situations, lived more secure from the sudden onsets of their surrounding enemies, and at the same time were within the call of assistance.
To these theories an objection arises, that the entrances are generally turned towards the east. This peculiarity would indicate a religious view in their construction. It is certain that our heathen ancestors were accustomed to worship the sun in enclosed places, as well as in groves; and an instance may be adduced in that great Druidical temple, called the Giant’s Ring, in the parish of Drumboe, near Belfast. Hence may be formed a conjecture, that these mounds were oratories, or places of worship, not unlike our chapels of ease, for the daily convenience of those districts, which were at a distance from the great temples.
It is to be regretted that these venerable remains of primeval art, are beginning to disappear from the face of the country. Being found to contain excellent soil, they are now applied by the farmers to the purposes of agriculture, in defiance of the displeasure of the fairies, the apprehension of whom had long contributed to preserve them; and it is to be feared that in a little time scarcely a vestige of them will exist. Several of these raths have been levelled in different parts of the union, but in none of them, as far as the writer’s information extends, have any military weapons, or other remains of antiquity been found. (Boate, in his natural history of Ireland, mentions a mound or tumulus near Carrickfergus, which being examined, was found to contain several kinds of ancient armour, and other curiosities.)
At Pitmave is to be seen an ancient cemetery, called the Giant’s Grave, at the spot whence that town land derives its name. It is an enclosed vault, composed of large square stones; being about 35 feet long, 4½ feet wide, and 2 feet deep. About forty years ago, a person of the name of Skelton, at that time land-surveyor to the Earl of Hertford, had the curiosity to open it, and found in it human bones of a gigantic size, as the people of the country report. These bones, when touched, crumbled into dust. At the head of this ancient cemetery, stands a venerable thorn, of a remarkable size. Two other vaults of smaller dimensions are on each side.
The district comprehended in the union, was formerly a part of the vast possessions of the O’Neills. Before the Baron’s Wars in England, it was possessed and inhabited by Englishmen; and an old defaced castle, belonging to them, called Sir Miles Tracie’s Castle, was in existence in the year 1598. (An account of eight counties, Anno 1598. MS. among the property of the late Dean Dobbs, of Carrickfergus.) Early in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Cormac Mc. Neile, called the Captain of Killultagh, possessed this country; who being bought off by Sir Nicholas Bagnall, deserted the standard of O’Neill, and submitted to the Queen. This conduct occasioned, in all probability, the loss of his terror Tories; for shortly after, we find O’Neill’s nephew. Bryan Mc. Art, in possession of Killultagh, with a force of twenty horse, and one hundred and sixty foot. From his impenetrable woods, and strong holds, he continued for several years, to make irruptions into the English pale, and to spread terror and desolation wherever he went. His outrages at length calling for the chastisement of the English government, he was attacked in the month of Marsh 1602, by Sir Arthur Chichester, then governor of Carrickfergus; was defeated, and driven out of his own territories, into which he had retreated with five hundred men; and his followers reduced to such extremities, that they were compelled to seek subsistence by devouring each other. Seldom has the page of history recorded more deplorable scenes of distress, than those endured by the unfortunate adherents of Bryan. Three children were seen feeding on the starved body of their dead mother, which had served them for food for twenty days. (Morysen, and Biograph. Britan)
By the act for the attainder of Shane O’Neill, passed in the year 1569, the terrorities of Killultagh escheated to the queen; by whom they were granted, with other possessions of the O’Neills, in the year 1571, to Sir Thomas Smyth and Son, on condition of subduing all rebels therein, and planting them with good subjects. Pursuant to these conditions, a colony was sent over; but the younger Smyth lost his life in the attempt to establish it; and after the sum of £10,000 had been expended, the undertaking was rendered abortive by the decided opposition of the O’Neills. The conditions not being fulfilled, the grants in consequence became void, and reverted to the crown. (County of Down Grand Inquisition, 1623)
In the year 1604, Con. O’Neill, in consideration of a pardon granted to him by the king, at the suit of Sir James Hamilton, consented that these lands, with others, should be conveyed to him by letters patent. From Sir James Hamilton they passed, about the year 1609, by letters patent, to Sir Fluke Conway, at that time an active officer in the English army; who, by introducing English and Welsh settlers, and with them English and Welsh manners and improvements, greatly contributed towards the civilization of the inhabitants, and the cultivation of the soil. The family of Sir Fulke Conway enjoyed the territories of Killultagh until the year 1683, when Edward the last Earl Conway dying without issue, bequeathed them after the decease of his Countess Ursula, to Francis Seymour, son of Sir Edward Seymour, speaker of the Long Parliament (Lodge’s Peerage), and the revered author of that second great charter of our liberties, the Habeas Corpus act. This Francis Seymour was to have married the only daughter of Earl Conway, who had no male issue; and the marriage settlements were prepared and adjusted. On the day fixed for the celebration of their nuptials, the lady died suddenly, to the inexpressible grief of her father, and intended husband. When this melancholy event was announced, Earl Conway sent for Mr. Seymour to his bedchamber, and after deploring the afflicting incident, told him, that since it was the will of God to prevent an alliance, which he had much at heart to see accomplished, he must still consider him as his son-in-law, and heir to his estates and fortune. His will was made according to this declaration, and Mr. Seymour inherited his extensive terror Tories. From him the lands of Killultagh have descended in regular succession, to the present noble proprietor, the Marquis of Hertford.
Present and Former State of Population, Food, Fuel &c.
An enumeration of the population of the union, was made by the writer in the course of a parochial visitation, in the year 1808; of which an abstract will be found in the appendix.
There is no document to shew the former state of population. A conjecture only as to it can be formed. If the same ratio be allowed to exist between the baptisms and population of different years, the population of the year 1713, will be thus ascertained:- the baptisms in the year 1813, amount to 98; the population in the same year, to 6107; and the baptisms in the year 1713, to 23 (The number in the Parish Registry, exclusively belonging to the union). Here the three terms will produce a fourth, 1433, for the population of 1713. Should this be thought to bear too small a proportion to the present population, it will be recollected, that the country at that time, was much covered with wood; and that such has been the progress of population, in modern times, that an unusual increase will be observed since the first census taken by me in 1808, owing, among other causes, to the great farms being subdivided, as they fall out of lease, into smaller portions.
The number of poor on the church books, comprehending individuals of different religious persuasions, amounts to thirty-six.
There is one resident magistrate in the union (Since these papers have been prepared for the press, John Armstrong, Esq., of Cherryvalley, in the parish of Camlin, has also been appointed to this office) Stafford Whittle, Esq., who is assisted in his duties by four petty constables, appointed in the Court Leet; and by the constables of the barony, appointed at the assizes. Their authority is strengthened by a fine corps of yeomanry, called the Glenavy Infantry, consisting of 148 rank and file; of which Mr. Whittle is captain, and Messrs. John Ridgeway and Daniel Allen, are lieutenants.
The food of the lower classes, consists of potatoes, meal, milk, and occasionally butter, flesh, and fish. The fuel used by the inhabitants in general, is turf, and sometimes bog-timber and coal. The best turf is sold at 4s 6d per cage; light turf from 2s to 3s 4d. The appearance of the people is decent, healthy, and robust. Their clothing is good and substantial, being partly of Irish, and partly of English manufacture. The females, since the introduction of the cotton manufacturers, vie in neatness and superfluity of dress, with their wealthier neighbours; and, it may be remarked, that it is rare to meet with an instance of a person, at the fairs or other places of public resort, wanting shoes and stockings. Their mode of living, is cleanly, comfortable, and regular. In point of wealth, they may be said to be independent. The great moderation with which the Marquis of Hertford sets his lands, enables them to cultivate their farms with spirit, and to advantage; and as they frequently unite manufactures with their agricultural occupations, it is not unusual that individuals realize a competence to bequeath to their families.
The cottiers’ houses are in general built of stone and mortar. They are roofed with fir, ash, or bog timber; and thatched with straw, except a few that are slated. The size if from 17 to 24 feet long, and from 13 to 15 feet wide, and about six feet high in the side-walls. They are divided into two apartments, a kitchen, and a bedroom. The furniture differs according to the industry of the family; for two cottiers may have the same wages, and the furniture of one be superior to that of the other. They have commonly two beds, (mostly chaff,) with bed clothes. Some have but one, and some three, five, or six stools and chairs; one or two looms, and spinning wheels; one or two metal pots; a small table, or two; one or two boxes, or chests; a small quantity of earthen, and tin ware; one, or two wooden bowls or dishes; a small number of wooden vessels, such as a tub, a piggin, a can, and two or three noggins; and a few knives, and horn spoons. The garden seldom exceeds one English rood of ground. The annual rent of a house and garden, varies from 1l. 14s. 1 1/2d to 2/. 16s. 10 1/2d.: a few may be higher. A great part of the cottiers are employed yearly in labour by their landlords. A few are linen and cotton weavers, who are only engaged to work occasionally for them. Some have a house and garden, and a cow’s grass during the summer season; for which they pay from 4½ to 6½ guineas per annum.
The diseases chiefly prevalent, are those incidental to the climate; rheumatism, dyspepsia, pleurisy, and weakness in the limbs. Although the climate is variable, it is yet temperate, and instances of protracted existence are not unfrequent. In the townland of Aghadolgan lives William Lennon, of the age of 97, who is able to go round his farm, and attend his cattle. In the year 1723, died Ann Gore, aged 85. A note in the parish registry, which records her interment, attests that she bore a child at the age of 58. In Crumlin, lived Sarah McQuillen, at the age of 93. In the year 1801, died Arthur Bell, aged 90. In the year 1803, James Smith of Glenavy died, aged 93. In 1810 died Oliver Ingram of Ballyvorally, aged 88. At Pigeontown, died Mrs Margaret McNiece, in the year 1811, at the age of 95. This venerable matron saw the fifth generation, in her daughter’s great-grandchildren; and if the eldest of them had not died, it is probable she would have seen the sixth. In the year 1812, died Mrs Clements, at the age of 82; and in the same year, Miss Ann Gorman, aged 85. In the present year died Sarah Ingram, at the age of 84; and Elizabeth Montgomery, aged 91.
The Genius & Disposition of the Poorer Classes, &c.
The lower classes are intelligent, honest and industrious; temperate in their habits, and orderly in this conduct. They are civil and obliging to one another, and respectful to their superiors, yet not servile. There is a manliness in their demeanour, which is the result of liberal treatment, and education; and their contentment with their lot may be inferred from their loyalty to the king, and attachment to the constitution.
Their language is exclusively English, the Irish being altogether unknown. It has been already noticed, that a English colony was introduced by Sir Fluke Conway; to this it may be ascribed, that the idiom is correct without provincialism, and the dialect unadulterated by brogue.
Among a people thus diversified by intermixture, and progressive in improvement, it cannot be expected that the primitive manners of the country would continue. Accordingly their mode of living, clothing and habitations, are altogether modern, and possess nothing to distinguish them from their neighbours. The few customs that remain, have been rendered more permanent by being connected with religious observances. Yet for this reason, they are not merely local, and are to be found in other parts of the island. When they bring their children to be baptized, a piece of bread and cheese is wrapped up in the infant’s clothes. If several children are brought to the font, the male is presented first. On the 17th of March a shamrock is worn, in honour of St. Patrick. Palm twigs are bourne on the Sunday before Easter. Pancakes are eaten on Shrove Tuesday; nuts and apples on Hallow-eve; and a goose on Christmasday. Easter-Monday is devoted to festivity; St. Stephen’s day to the pleasures of the field; and on Midsummer’s eve- bonfires are lighted, in unconscious observance of the superstition of our heathen ancestors, who thus did honour to their God Beal, or the sun.
The only tradition preserved among them, that the writer has been able to collect, is the following:
At Knockcairn, now the residence of Wm. Gregg, Esq., lived in the times, perhaps of James 1, a chieftain, who is called by the name of Dunn. This person was married to one of the Uptons of Templepatrick, a Protestant, whom he would compel to renounce her faith, and embrace that of the church of Rome. Being unable to accomplish his purpose, either by persuasion or threats, he was inflamed with indignation, and resolved to punish her obstinacy by devoting her and her children to destruction. He accordingly enclosed her and her children in a part of his castle, and then set fire to it. To enjoy the effects of his cruelty, he posted himself on a small hill, at the distance of about eighty perches, and sitting down on a large stone, exclaimed with cool barbarity, that “he took pleasure in their cries.” Whence, says my reporter this hill is called the “Hill of Pleasure,” to this day.
Such wanton cruelty towards their sister, did not fail to excite the resentment of the Uptons; and collecting all their forces, they determined to inflict vengeance on the author of it. They therefore made an irruption into their brother-in-law’s terror Tories, and posted themselves on a small hill, called “Bell’s Hill,” within about half-a-mile from the castle. Dunn, in the mean time, was not remiss in preparing for his defence. Assembling his numerous forces, (for, says my authority, he had the upper parts of this county, and the county of Armagh, under him) he presented so formidable a front to his enemies, that they were obliged to retreat slowly to Dundrod. Dunn pursued them with rapid speed. The Uptons seeing him approach, posted themselves in an advantageous situation, on a little hill above Dundrod; whence, observing their enemy exhausted by the rapidity of his march, they attacked him, completely defeated him, and compelled him to consult his safety by a precipitate flight to Dundrod. Hence the route he pursued, is yet called “Dunn’s Race.” Here the tradition ceases, and leaves us in the dark as to the fate of this bigoted chief. The foundations of an ancient building, said to be the remains of Dunn’s Castle are to be seen near Mr. Gregg’s house.
The Education and Employment of Children &c.
The children are sent to school until they can read and write; after which they either follow their parents’ occupations, or are apprenticed to trade, or go to service. The males are generally taught to weave; the females to spin.
The schools are either established, or temporary. The former are kept in houses, built for the purpose by the inhabitants; the latter in barns, by itinerant teachers, in the summer season. The quarterly salary for tuition is 3s. 9d spelling and reading; for writing and arithmetic, 5s. In schools of a higher class, the rate of tuition is, 10s for reading, arithmetic, and English grammar; 7s 6d reading and writing; and 5s alphabet and spelling. Clements Fitzgerald is the parochial schoolmaster, appointed pursuant to the statue of Henry VIII.
The following was the state of the regular schools in 1801, as ascertained by the writer during a parochial visitation:
Master’s Name : Bernard Donnelly, R. Catholic
Station : Tullynewbane
Males : 30
Females : 10
Protest : 34
Dissent : 0
Catholics : 6
Master’s Name : John McQuillen, Protestant
Station : Tullynewbane
Females : 9
Protest : 2
Catholics : 0
Master’s Name : Jas. McLoughlin, R. Catholic
Station : Aghadolgan
Females : 9
Protest : 16
Catholics : 19
Master’s Name : Clem. Fitzgerald
Station : Ballyvanen
Females : 11
Protest : 17
Catholics : 13
Females : 39
Protest : 69
Catholics : 58
Master’s Name : Nathaniel Whyte, P. Dissenter
Station : Town of Glenavy
Females : 8
Protest : 24
Catholics : 6
Master’s Name : Thomas Holmes, P. Dissenter
Station : Town of Crumlin
Females : 16
Protest : 14
Catholics : 0
Master’s Name : James Lukey, P. Dissenter
Station : Town of Crumlin
Females : 10
Protest : 6
Catholics : 23
Females : 34
Protest : 44
Catholics : 29
Master’s Name : Wallace Ireland, P. Dissenter
Station : Dundrod
Females : 22
Protest : 0
Catholics : 1
Master’s Name : John Madden, R. Catholic
Station : Budor
Females : 7
Protest : 0
Catholics : 3
Master’s Name : William Ryan, P. Dissenter
Station : Tullyrusk
Females : 4
Protest : 6
Catholics : 10
Females : 33
Protest : 6
Catholics : 14
Total in the Union
Females : 106
Protest : 119
Catholics : 81
Hence it follows, in reference to the population of the same year, that one scholar and a fraction of (?) go to school from every four families in the parish of Glenavy; one scholar and a fraction of 32/103 from every three families in the parish of Camlin. And one scholar and a fraction of(?) from every two families in the parish of Tullyrusk. All these schools are conducted on the old plan of education. Two new school-houses are now building; one in the townland of Crew, and the other in Deer-park.
There is an academy at Crumlin for boarders and day-scholars, under the superintendence of the Rev. N. Alexander, assisted by ushers, which is conducted with care and ability. The course of education comprises the Greek, Latin, English, and French languages, Mathematics, Astronomy, Geography, Logic, History, Christian Morality and Evidences, Writing and Arithmetic. A classical school is taught in Glenavy, by Mr. Daniel Mc.Allister; in which the rate of tuition is 16s 3d per quarter. The contiguity of these schools enables the wealthier classes to give their children a liberal education; and has been the occasion of many farmers sending their sons to college, and placing them in learnes professions.
State of Religious Establishment, Tythes &c.
The union of Glenavy is comprised of three vicarages, Glenavy, Camlin and Tullyrusk, of which the Marquis of Hertford is patron, and rector. It is now situated in the diocese of Connor, although before the Charter of James 1, which erected the chapters of Down and Connor, it was part of the diocese of Down, and in the ancient rural deanery of Clandermont. The precise year in which the union took place, is not known. It would appear by a regal visitation book, deposited among the records of the Court of Prerogative, that there was an union so early as the year 1633. Perhaps the date may be referred, wither to the time of the dissolution of the abbeys, in the reign of Henry VIII, when the great tythes of many parishes belonging to them, were granted to laymen, and the remaining revenues in some being then found inadequate to the support of a minister, would occasion their being united in one person; or, to the time of Queen Elizabeth, when an additional reason for uniting parishes arose, from the small number of Protestants in some of these, in consequence of the separation of the Roman Catholics from the reformed church.
The rectory of Glenavy, previously to the dissolution of the monasteries, pertained to the great Abbey of Bangor, in the county of Down; after which, it was granted to Sir James Hamilton, in the patent which conferred on him the territories of Killultagh. Sir. Fluke Conway then became possessed of it; and the Rev. Meredith Gwyllim was presented by him to the vicarage, in the year 1622. (). It appears by a terrier of the year 1604, the vicar paid at that time for ecclesiastical dues, 3s in proxies; 3s in refections; and 2s in synodals. In 1622, 3s were paid in procurations; 3l in first-fruits; and 3d in twentieth-parts (Records in the Court of Prerogative) . The vicar at present pays for the union, 1l 6s 8d in procurations, and 8s 4d in exhibits; at the Primate’s triennial visitation 2l 12s 6d.
Camlin was anciently a Bishop’s mensal, and contained two townlands belonging to the See of Down, which were probably lost by being leased in perpetuity, before the retraining statue. (The Terrier of 1604, has the following note of this parish, which is given in the obscurity of the original, being a literal transcript:- “Episcopi mensal.” – Camlin a little parish within the Bishop‘s two townlands, and it is “spar pallet” by evil neighbours, and in the Bishop‘s “decay” – Query, “decoy”). It is called a Grange in the registry of Connor; and the church designated by the name of the Chapel of Camlin, both in the registry, and the regal visitation book. This followed from the nature of a mensal, of which the bishop being rector, the duties were discharged by a curate, and the place of worship in which he officiated, therefore denominated by the more humble appellation of Chapel. The same hand which was so lavish of the temporalities, may have conveyed away the right of presentation. Camlin paid in the year 1604, 1s in proxies; 1s in refections; and 2s in synodals. In 1622, the curate paid 10s frst fruits, and 6d twentieth-parts. Six shillings for procurations upon the impropriation, were claimed in the same year.
Tullyrusk is called a Grange, in the registry of Connor, and a chapelry in the terrier, and regal visitation-book. It was probably either a Bishop’s mensal, or a chapelry dependant on some of the great monastries. In 1604, the curate paid 2s, in synodals; and in the year 1622, 10s in procurations.
The tythes are rectorial and vicarial. The Marquis of Hertford, with that moderation which has always distinguished his treatment of his tenantry, accepts a small compensation in lieu of the former. A lease of the latter, for ten years, was given by the present incumbent to trustees, on behalf of the parish, for an acreable composition. There is at present neither glebe of glebe house, belonging to the union. ( Since these papers have been prepared for the press, a glebe has been granted by the Marquis of Hertford, and money by the Board of First Fruits to build a house upon it.)
An annual cess is laid on at the Easter Vestry, by the minister, church-wardens, and parishioners, and appropriated to the clerk and sexton’s salaries, repairs of the church, communion elements, parish charges, and various other purposes. The cess may be averaged at 60 l per annum.
The poor’s box produced this year, 30 l 18s 6d. As during part of this time the new church was not finished, the average produce may be stated at 36l. This fund is applied quarterly, to the relief of the poor of all persuasions: the sum given to each individual, is varied according to the exigencies of the season.
The records of the union are, a registry of baptisms, marriages, burials, and acts of vestry, in one volume, commencing in the year 1707; a registry in parchment, of baptisms and marriages commencing in the year 1813; and a book, containing the acts of vestry, commencing in the year 1814. The registry of burials is still continued in the old book of 1707. These records are kept in the church, under lock and key.
The church is advantageously placed for the purposes of devotion, in a calm retired situation, along the banks of the river of Glenavy, at a short distance from the town; the approach to it being by a long avenue, lined on each side with a row of venerable ash trees. It is a handsome modern building, 60 feet long, by 32 wide, with a tower and spire, and a gallery. The inside is neatly finished, the pews being uniform, and of an oak colour; and the ceiling decorated with a cornice and stucco work. There are four tier of seats, two on each side, and two in the centre, with two alleys. The total number of pews amounts to sixty, most of which are double.
The old church being too small for the increasing population of the country, it became necessary either to enlarge it, or build a new one. The former resolution was at first adopted; but the walls being found insufficient, it was relinquished, and a new church determined on. For this purpose, a sum of 150 l was presented at the vestry; to which the Marquis of Hertford, with his usual liberality, added a donation of 100 l; and the Countess of Longford, though not an inhabitant, generously gave 20 l. This fund was still inadequate to the object; and the work would have been delayed, perhaps abandoned, had not the Lord Bishop of Down and Connor, the Right Reverend Dr. Nathaniel Alexander, secured its progress, by his exertions in obtaining from the Board of First Fruits, a donation of 200 l, and a loan of 250 l; thus adding another to the may proofs, which the diocese exhibits of his unremitting care, in the numerous churches and glebe-houses, which he has been the means of erecting in various parts of it. A further sum of 500 l 11s was raised by auctioning the situations to build pews, and to complete the work; and after the foundation stone had been laid on the 12th of June 1812, the doors were opened to the congregation on the 24th of April, 1814.
The churchwardens for the present year, are Messrs. John Ferris, and William Bryans; and the sidesmen, Messrs. William Gregory, and David Patterson.
In the town of Crumlin is a meeting-house, for the Protestant-dissenters. It is a plain, substantial edifice, 60 feet long, by 24 wide, with an aisle and three galleries, containing 70 seats, some of them double, sufficient to accommodate 500 persons. The Rev. Nathaniel Alexander is the minister.
The Roman Catholic chapel is a neat, modern building, 60 feet long, by 30 side; and is situated in the townland of Ballymacricket, within half a mile of the town of Glenavy. The Rev. Patrick Blaney is the Roman Catholic priest. This chapel was built about 15 years ago, by subscription; to which the Marquis of Hertford, and the Protestants of the union, liberally contributed.
Modes of Agriculture, Crops &c.
The mode of agriculture differs little from what is generally practised in the neighbouring parishes. Heavy clay lands prepared for wheat, or vetches, to which it is well adapted, by a winter fallow, and cross-plowed in May; when dried sufficiently by the weather, it is levelled with a break, and then with a small harrow. Lime, or soil, or a compost of both, is spread over it, after which, the field is formed by the plough into ridges. The wheat and vetches are sown in October, and covered with harrows; or if the ground be wet, are trenched with the spade. When the crop is reaped, and taken off, the stubble ground is ploughed in the following spring, for a crop of oats, which are well covered with the small harrow. The furrows are then cleared up with a plough constructed for that purpose, which throws the mould to each side, and is drawn by one horse. The third crop is generally clover, or grass seed, for feeding cattle. After resting two or three years, the ground is treated in the manner above described, and the same succession of crops taken from it. Light ground, as in Pitmave, Tullyrusk, and the upper part of the union, is seldom employed in grazing more than a few years, lest it should become too light, (This may appear singular, but the fact is attested by respectable farmers in the neighbourhood. By lying fallow it becomes mossy; lime has been found to have no effect in reclaiming it; the most beneficial manure is dung.) and therefore less productive.
The ground allotted for potatoes, is, for the most part stubble of the third crop of oats; which, being harrowed flat with a break and small harrows, cross-cut with the plough, again harrowed and formed into drills, and a quantity of manure made by cattle during the winter spread on it, potatoes are dropped into the drill, and immediately covered by the plough. The necessary operation of ploughing and working among these during the summer, to kill the weeds and mould the potatoes, is considered nearly equal to a fallow. When the potatoes are raised and taken away, wheat or vetches are sowed in November; ot it is reserved for oats, in the ensuing spring. When the ground is light or sandy, barley or rye is commonly sown. Some farmers keep their potatoe ground until May or June following, for producing turnips in the drill way.
The kinds of grain chiefly cultivated are, wheat, oats, barley and rye, in the following proportions. Let 50 represent the whole grain in the union; of which it is estimated, that 35 parts are oats, 12 wheat, 2 barley and 1 rye.
The quantity of land under crop, is about two parts out of seven; the other five parts are employed in grazing and meadow.
The only green food raised for cattle in winter, is turnips and vetches; and even these in small quantities. It is expected, however, that when the utility of these green crops is better understood, they will be more extensively cultivated.
From the preceding statement it will appear, that improvements in agriculture or implements of husbandry, have, though progressive, not been hitherto very considerable. Mr Whittle of Thistleborough has introduced a scythe for gutting grain, similar to the common scythe, but with splinters of wood fastened to the handle, and running in the same direction with the blade, to lay the heads of the grain one way. He has also a threshing machine, to which one for winnowing the grain is attached, by which the process of both threshing and cleaning is carried on at the same time. Scotch ploughs have been introduced, and are used by many with good effect, chiefly in breaking up meadow ground, and in land where there are few stones. Mr. William Whitla of Gobrana lately introduced a water-furrowing plough, with a rake at each side, fastened by a hinge; which rakes the ridges, while it clears the furrows. It is obvious that this can be employed with most advantage in grounds loose, and free from stones. The common Irish plough is mostly used. The remaining implements are, small harrows, common cars, two-wheeled carts, spades, shovels, picks, hoes, scythes, reaping-hooks, two or three pronged forks, pruning bills, hedge scissors, common hand machines for cleaning grain, rakes, wheel-barrows, hand-barrows, baskets for sowing grain, and flails.
The manures chiefly used are, lime, soil raised out of the gripes, or from the backs of ditches, and dung made by the cattle in winter. The latter is for the most part reserved for meadow.
An account of the stock was taken in November 1803, by order of the Government; of which the following is an abstract. (This account, to ensure its accuracy, was taken under the superintendence of the late Conway McNiece, Esq of Pigeontown; who, to an intimate knowledge of the country, united an active interference in its concerns. The memory of this gentleman is held in deserved estimation in the Union. He devoted the course of a long life to its interests; and spared neither personal exertion, his time, or his purse, in settling the differences, composing the dissensions, and promoting the welfare of the inhabitants – Transeat in exemplum). On the farms in the union, being 481, were 42 saddle horses, 420 draft ditto, 55 oxen, 1121 cows, 920 young cattle and colts, 228 sheep and goats, 775 pigs, 373 cars, 491 boles of wheat, 4176 boles of oats, 105 boles of barley, 6037 loads of hay, 8398 sacks of potatoes, 14 cwt. of flour, 403 cwt. of oatmeal.
In the lower part of the union, bounded by the Lurgan road on the east, Glenavy river on the north, and extending to Derryola and the new Park, the farms are on an average about 20 acres; in the other parts they will average about 30 acres. There are several farms of a large size; Mr. Whittle holds above 300 acres in his own hands; William Gregg, Esq. of Knockcairn has 267 acres in his farm; Mr. John Murray of Ballypitmave 197; Mr John Oakman of Ballydonaghy 150; and Mr. William Clements of Ballydonaghy, 126; few beside these exceed 50; others diminish until they come to 15 and 10. The proportion of working horses to the size of farms, may be thus estimated; in the lower district of the union, two horses, that is, one plough, are able to work orty acres; as also in the upper parts, where the land does not produce wheat. But in heavy clay ground, three horses are required to a plough, to cultivate the same number of acres. In that district where I have stated the average size of farms to be 20 acres, the fields contain about three acres; where rhe farms are larger, the fields generally contain about (?) acres.
The fences or enclosures most prevalent, are clay ditches, faced with stones, and quicked in front. In soft marshy ground, and bogs as in the Tunney Island and Deerpark, the inhabitants make two ditches about a perch asunder, with the back of the one opposite to that of the other. The back of each, and the space between them, are planted with osiers, and the face with quicks. The ditches answer the double purpose of good enclosures, and draining the grounds.
The Marquis of Hertford is proprietor, and lord of the manor. The only perpetuities in the union derived from him, are the four townlands of Ballymacreevan, Ballytromery, Ballygortgarve, and Ballyshanoghey, containing 1587 acres, and 3 roods, English measure, leased to Sir Hercules Langford, Bart., by Lord Conway, about the year 1670; for which the Countess of Longford pays an annual rent of thirty pounds. Several individuals hold farms on these lands, in perpetuity, under her ladyship.
From the year 1741 to 1745, nearly the entire of the union was let by the late Marquis, then Earl of Hertford, for three lives and 41 years, from three to five shillings the acre. The longevity of the inhabitants is strongly evinced by the number of these lives who yet survive. When a lease expires, the land is re-set by the present Marquis to the occupying tenants, at a moderate rent; and no advantage taken of the houses, and other buildings, made by the tenants. On no estate perhaps in the country, is tenant-right more respected; and hence the many comfortable houses, and several elegant mansions, which have been erected, and the high rate at which the tenant-right is sometimes sold. The tenure given by the present Marquis, is one life and twenty-one years, and the rent may average at about 16s an acre. The measure used is the English statute, except in the Countess of Longford’s perpetuity, where it is the Cunningham.
The rate of labourers’ wages is about fifteen-pence-a-day. Hired men servants, with bed and board, get from ten to sixteen pounds, and maid-servants from 2l 10s to 4l 10s a year.
The prices of provisions, and provender, are as follows:
s d s d Beef and mutton, from 0 5 to 0 6 per lb Pork, from 0 4 to 0 6 ditto Butter 0 10 to 1 0 ditto Fowls 0 7 to 0 10 each Geese 2 0 to 2 6 ditto Turkeys 2 6 to 3 0 ditto Oatmeal 2 8 to 3 0 per score Barley 7 6 to 8 6 per cwt of 112(?) Wheat 12 6 to 13 0 ditto Flour 27 0 to 28 0 ditto Oats 7 0 to 8 0 ditto Potatoes 10 per bushel Hay 50 0 to 60 0 per ton
A fair is held twice a year in Glenavy, on the 14th of May, and the 29th of October (If those days fall on a Saturday, the fair is postponed until the Monday following; pursuant to the laudable custom of the county of Antrim) in which horned cattle are the chief article of sale. A monthly market is held in Crumlin, on the first Monday, for the sale of yarn, cattle, and other commodities. Though but lately established, it is well attended, and under the care and protection of Lieut. Colonel Heyland, has every appearance of prosperity. The tolls taken in both places are, two pence for a cow, and one penny for sheep and swine. The market-towns for the sale of grain, are Lisburn, Belfast and Lurgan.
Of the county, manor, and parish cesses, by ancient and immemorial custom, one-fourth is paid by Tullyrusk, and the other three-fourths are applotted equally upon Glenavy and Camlin. The county and manor cesses may be stated as follows:
Lent Assizes Manor Cess £10 County Cess £84 Total £94
Summer Assizes Manor & County Cess £120
Manor Cess £10 County Cess £84 Total £94 Manor & County Cess £108
Manor Cess £10 County Cess £84 Total £94 Manor & Co. Cess £112 6s 8d
Manor Cess £6 County Cess £64 Total £70 Manor & County Cess £86
The manor roads are made or repaired by presentment at the Summer Leet, and each constable wick pays for its own roads; which will account for the difference between the Summer and Lent cesses.
It may be proper to state here, that an agricultural Society for Lower Massareene and Glenavy, was formed about the year 1803. The principal object was to promote improvements in the smaller farms, and to excite exertion by offering premiums. With this in view, they proposed to encourage the saving of flax and clover seeds; ploughing, ditching, and attention to the breed of cattle, were also recommended; and the advantages of cultivating green crops for winter food were pointed out, and directions given for raising them. It is to be regretted that this useful society, after a short continuance, was dissolved. (Since this account was written, a similar society, with similar objects has een formed in the beginning of the present year – 1815)
Trade, manufactures, Commerce, &c.
The trade principally consists in brown linen, yarn, butter, pigs, grain, and potatoes. The principle manufacture is linen. There is a cotton manufactory at Glenavy, belonging to Messrs. Forsythe and Co., which employs from 90 to 100 hands within, and about 300 weavers without. These manufacturers are carried on promiscuously with agriculture. Every house may be said to possess a wheel; and nearly one-third of the houses a loom. A mill for spinning flax has been erected by Mr. J. Ferguson, at Cidercourt, near Crumlin; for which he received a premium from the linen-board. Mr. Joseph Ashcroft has a manufactory for stamping cotton, on a small scale, at Knockcairn. The only bleach-green in the union, is one belonging to Stafford Whittle, Esq., at Glenconway, in the townland of Ballyvorally. There were formerly eight bleach yards on the river of Glenavy; one of which remains, one is unemployed, two have been converted to the purposes above-mentioned, and the rest are in ruins.
Undressed flax is sold from 8s 8d to 20s per stone of 16lb; dressed flax from 1s 8d to 3s per pound; yarn from 2s 6d to 5s per spangle. The linen usually made is seventeen hundred, yard wide, and sold from 2s 6d to 3s per yard, in the brown state: the cambrics are thirty inches wide, and from 1s 6d to 2s 2d per yard. Children earn at the cotton manufactory, from 1s 8d a week, to a higher sum, according to their ages; women earn 4s 6d; the wages of men varies until it rises to 1l 10s. Prices in the usual trades:- masons and carpenters, 3s 3d per diem; tailors 6s 6d for a suit of clothes, (with diet); shoemakers, from 9s to 12s for a pair of shoes, including materials; smiths 1s 8d for horse-shoeing, exclusive of materials.
There are twenty vessels belonging to the union, which ply the shores of Lough Neagh. These may be distinguished by their freight into three kinds. The first comprehends a sloop of 10 tons burden, employed in carrying grain to Antrim; and a pleasure boat of 2 tons, and 5cwt belonging to Mr. Whittle. The second consists of two boats, called by the fishermen ponts, of 3cwt each, used principally in the carriage of turf, and the third comprehends sixteen small boats, of (?) cwt each, engaged in the fisheries of trout, pollan, tench and pike.
Natural Curosities, Remarkable Occurrences, &c.
There is a fine cataract, called the “Leap” in the lands of Mr. Whittle, at Glenconway, composed of basalt strata, over which the river of Glenavy rolls in its passage to Lough Neagh. Its perpendicular height is about 45 feet, the breadth 33, with a gradual slope of about 105 feet. The declivity is broken and irregular, by which the water is fretted in its course, and precipitated to the bottom in a cloud of spray. A row of planting skirts the banks of the river, and adds beauty and variety to the scene.
The beginning of the year 1814 is remarkable for so extraordinary all of snow, accompanied with an intense frost; and the conclusion of it, for the greatest fall of rain that has happened in the memory of man. The snow began to fall on the 3d of January, and was not completely thawed until the 29th of March, continuing on the ground for 85 days; during art of which time the roads were covered to an unusual depth, so as to be impassable to both man and horse. The rain continued for above two months, almost without intermission, and produced excessive floods, that the new bridge over Crumlin river, at Cidercourt, was entirely swept away. Lough Neagh was swelled to an unprecedented height, and over flowed its banks for a considerable distance; by which many families were compelled to leave their inhabitations, and much property was lost. In one day the rain guage announced a fall of three inches, equal to the average fall of a whole month. From the 11th of October to the 30th, 5.836 inches fell; in November, 10.334; Total inches, 16.170; forming together two thirds of the common average of an entire year’s fall. A parallel to this is not in human memory.
Since these papers were prepared for the press, the following account of a phenomenon in Dundrod, in the parish of Tullyrusk, appeared in the Belfast News Letter, of the 9th of April 1816:- “Singular Phenomenon – On the 6th ult., during a severe shower of hail, accompanied with loud peals of thunder, a body of matter was observed in the neighbourhood of Dundrod, county of Antrim, resembling a little dark cloud stretching itself to the ground, and wreathing like that part of a water-spout which may be seen in a fluctuating state before it bursts. It continued moving rapidly in a north-easterly direction, till coming to the house of David Mairs, Inn-keeper, it instantly carried off the whole thatch from the dwelling-house, together with that of an adjoining barn; also, a rick of hay that stood a few perches from the kitchen door. Some of these were found scattered throughout the fields at the distance of three-quarters of a mile from Mair’s. and some were caught by the neighbouring hedges, which were broken down; some thorns were torn out of root, and part of a potatoe pit, against which it struck, scattered through the field. Continuing its course in the direction before-mentioned, and leaving behind it the strongest symptoms of impetuosity, it came to the dwelling of a man named Crothers, about a mile from the former house – the door was latched and barred with a spade, placed obliquely against it in such a manner as not to recede, but such was the force of the impulse, that the door was instantaneously driven open, the latch broken, the head of the spade forced through the door, and a woman who was sitting at the fire with a child in her arms, was carried to the back part of the kitchen; on recovering, she perceived a body of fire going out at a breach made in the roof opposite the door – Some of the thatch, &c., was carried away a considerable distance from the house; also the top of an oat stack, part of which has not since been found. From its effects, it appears to have been about one hundred yards in breadth, and to have continued nearly three miles in its course. We are happy to add that no person received any material hurt from it.”
The union has produced three authors, sons of the Rev. Thomas Crawford, (these gentlemen were born in the townland of Ballytromery, in the Parish of Camlin) the venerable and respected dissenting minister of Crumlin for 58 years, by his wife Anne McCay, sister to the mother of Miss Elizabeth Hamilton, authoress of “The Modern Philosophers,” and other celebrated works. The eldest son, Dr. William Crawford, was a man of considerable learning and great application. About the year 1769 he published remarks on Chesterfield’s letters, which gained him much reputation as a sound moralist, and good critic; and in some of the colleges, particularly Oxford, was put into the hands of the students as an antidote to the poison contained in that profligate work. In 1773 he published a translation of Turretine’s Dissertation on Natural Theology, in two volumes. About the year 1780 he published a short History of Ireland, in letters. He died minister of the Presbyterian congregation in Hollywood, in 1801. His life was not only blameless, but actively employed in doing good. John Crawford, the second son, was a surgeon in the service of the East India Company for many years. In an essay, dedicated to Sir George Colebrooke in the year 1769, he details the success of his practice, by the employment of mercury, which has since been generally adopted, and almost considered as a panacea in the liver complaints of that country. He died in the year 1813, at Baltimore, in America. The third son, Adair Crawford, was bred a physician, and practised in London. Few men during his short life, acquired more celebrity. He published an Experimental Essay on Animal Heat, which attracted the attention of all the philosophers of Europe, and has been translated into many of the modern languages. He published beside, in the transactions of the Royal Society, of which he was a member, an explanation of the power in animals to resist very high degrees of heat, written in consequence of the well-known experiments made by Doctors Fordyee and Solander, in a heated room; an Essay on the Matter of Cancer; and another on the medical Effects of Muriate of Barytes. Besides these he left a posthumous work, and experimental inquiry into the nature of the cohesion of the animal fibre; which will be immediately published by his younger and surviving brother, Doctor Alexander Crawford, an eminent physician at Lisburn. This ingenious, learned, and amiable man died of a consumption, occasioned by intense application to his literary and professional pursuits at Lymington, in Hampshire, in the year 1795.
A List of the Incumbents of the Union, from the year 1622.
Meredith Gwyllims 1622 Lemuel Matthews (*) 1680 Robert Quaile 1690 George Wilkins 1707 Benjamin Gatfield 1716 Anthony Rogers 1724 Anthony Welsh 1728 Conway Benning 1763 John Phipps 1770 Henry Reynett 1777 Sam. Dubourdieu 1780 Edward Cupples 1813
(*_ This gentleman was afterwards archdeacon of Down, and vicar- general of the dioceses of Down and Connor; and was deprived in the year 1693, by the celebrated Lisburn Commission, upon which he published a long and learned argument in 4to., in the year 1704 – Quad vide. )
Suggestions for Improvement, and Means for meliorating the Condition of the People
The deficiencies in improvement are such as are common to this province. A general adoption of the new system of education is wanted. A law to enable magistrates to abolish cock-fighting, would tend much to the preservation of the morals of the people. This practice gives them dissolute habits, detaches them from their business, brutalizes their minds, and involves them in all the consequences of intemperance and debauchery. It would conduce to the health of the poorer classes, if they constructed the windows of their cabins so as to allow ventilation; and occasionally white-washed the walls within. The soil would derive advantage from a more extensive introduction of English and Scotch improvements in agriculture; and its surface would assume additional beauty, by a more general attention to planting.
Containing the several Tables following:
1. Names of Townlands, with their Derivations and English name 2. Acreable contents of Townlands, with numbers of reference to the map (not complete) 3. Reference to the houses on the map 4. Register of Baptisms, Burials and Marriages 5. Surnames of the Inhabitants (not complete) 6. List of Birds frequenting Lough Neagh 7. Population Tables (not included) 8. Diary of the Weather on the Northern coast of the County of Antrim (not included) 9. Epitaph on Adair Crawford, Esq. M.D.F.R.S. (not included)
No 1. Names of Townlands &c.
Townlands in Glenavy
Names Derivation English Name Glenavy Gleann-aoibhin or Glean- amuan The pleasant glen or
The glen of the river
Ballypitmave Baille-pit-meabhal Town of the pit of shame Ballynacoy Baille-na-cuagh Cuckoo-town Tullynewbane Tullagh-nuadh-ban New white hill Ballymoneymore Baille-moine-mor Great moss town Ballyminimore Baille-moine-mor Great bog town Tullynewbank Tullagh-new-bank New bank hill Ballymoate Baille-mota Moat town Crew Crubh The form of a horse’s hoof Carnkilly Carn-coille Heap of wool Ballymacricket Baille-mac-cricket McCricket’s town Aghadolgan Agh-a-dolgan The hill of sorrow Edenturcher Endan-turcher The forehead of riches Ballyvorally Baille-nor-almha Great herd town Ballyvannen Baille- mhionnen Kid town Feumore Fe-mor The great pound, or park
Townlands in Camlin
Ballycamlin Baille-cam-lin The town of the crooked or winding Water Ballydonaghy Baille-donough Denistown Gob or Gobrana Gobb (a beak) Gob-raon The mouth of the way Lanygarve Leana-garbh The rough field Ballycessy Baille-caise or caise Cheese or stream town Ballyvollan Baille-maollin The town of the hill’s brow of summit Aghnederagh A-na-darrach Oakfield Ballymacreevan Baille-mac-criomthan Town of the young fox Ballytromery Baille-tromm-rath The town of the fort of the elder tree Ballygortgarve Baille-gort-garve Town of the rough field Ballyshanaghill, alias Ballyshanoghrey Baille-cnoc-seanach Foxtown-hill
Townlands in Tullyrusk
Tullyrusk Tullagh-riasg The moory hill Budor Budh-ur The yellow border Dunkilltrod Dunn-cell-drud Church-fort enclosure Knockern Cnoc-carn Carnhill
Ballycroimmoige Baille-crumog Heifer’s town Ballymaderaige Baille-na-deirge The red town Ballymakeanagh Baille-na-caonach Mosstown Ballymacbryan Baille-mac-Bryan Bryan’s son’s town Ballyclonigan Baille-clonnigan Clonigan’s town Ballykillaghhenry Baille-coille-henry Town of Henry’s wood Ballyaghkernan Baille-ath-carnan Town of Carnford Ballynegarriff Baillenegad-haraidh Hunting town Massareene Mas-rian The beautiful portion Killultagh Cill-ulltach Ulster man’s churchyard
No 2. Acreable Contents of Townlands (not complete)
Parish of Glenavy
1. The Deer Park 2. Lough Beg 3. Feumore 4. Ballyvannen 5. Ballyvorally 6. Aghadolgan 7. Edenturcher 8. Ballymacricket 9. Carmkilly 10. Crew 11. Ballymoate 12. Glenavy 13. Ballyminimore 14. Tullynewbank 15. Tullynewbane 16. Ballypitmave 17. Ballynacoy 18. Ballymonymore 19. Ballyvollan 20. Aghnadarragh 21. Ballyshanoghey alias Ballyshanaghill 22. Ballymacreevan 23. Ballygortgarve 24. Ballytromery 25. Lanygarve 26. Ballycessy 27. Gobb 28. Ballycamlin 29. Ballydonaghy
Parish Of Tullyrusk
30. Knockcairn 31. Tullyrousk 32. Dunkilltrod 33. Budor
No 3. Reference to Houses and Buildings in the Map
A Gore Mount – Wm Gore Esq B Messrs Forsythe & Co’s Cotton Manufactory CC Ballyminimore – Messrs Oakman D Ballypitmave – Mr. John Murray E Glenconway – Stafford Whittle, Esq F Pigeon-town – Messrs McNiece Oakman and Sons G Thistleborough – Stafford Whittle, Esq H Cherryvalley – John Armstron Esq I I Gobrana – Messrs Whitla K Lakefield – Robert Hyndman Esq L Ballydonaghy – Mr John Oakman M Knock cairn – William Gregg Esq. N Quarterland – Mrs Potts O Budor – Mrs Mc Clure P Heathfield – Mr David McClure
No 4. Baptisms, Deaths and Marriages, extracted from the Registry, at the interval of an hundred years
Years Males Females Total 1711 17 7 24 1712 14 16 30 1713 11 12 23 1714 9 11 20 1811 52 63 115 1812 66 64 130 1813 55 60 115 1814 64 73 137
1711 1 3 4 1712 1 1 2 1713 7 3 10 1714 2 4 6 1811 8 8 16 1812 4 7 11 1813 9 11 20 1814 11 15 26
Years Number 1711 0 1712 3 1713 3 1714 4 1811 15 1812 13 1813 12 1814 14
No 5. Surnames of the inhabitants
A: Alexander, Allen, Antwhistle, Agnew, Adams, Armstrong, Anderson, Addis, Aston, Ashcroft, Adgey, Andrews, Allice, Abernethy
B: Bell, Burns, Burnett. Bickerstaff, Boyd. Barron, Bry?, Beatty, Brian, Black, Brown, Blair, Baird, B?, Blaney, Byrt, Bolton, B?, Briggs, Boyle, B?, Buckley, Brankin, B? Breathwait, B? B? B?
C: Campbell, Croman, Conn, Cormachan, Crossey, Cardwell, Cromley, Clyde, Collins, Cassidy, C?, Clements, Colburn. Culbert, Culton, Clendinnen, C?, Crawford, Connolly, Craig, C?, Close, Collyer, Curry, Colbreath, Cousens, Corbet, Chapman, Cartane, Craney, Corr, Crangle, Connor, Courtney, C?,C?, Carrothers, Caldwell
D: Donnegan, Davison, Dixon, Davy, D?, D?, D?, Dickey, Doherty, Durham, Donald, Dixon, Downey. Dodd, Drummond, Dalton, Dugass, Donnelly, Dawley, Diamond, Donaldson, Dornan, Dillon, Duffy, Dorah
E: Elliott, Evans, Ellwood, Eadens, English
F: Flemming, Fulton, Forsythe, Fergusson, Feris, Finton, Fleeting, Farr, Fry, Falloon, Fletcher, Fitzgerald, Fearon, Flack, Fitzsimmons
G: Gregg, Glover, Gore, Gonlan, Gawley, Grissam, Grames, Gibson, Gillespie, Greer, Gillmor, Griffin, Garland, Graham, Green, Gray, Grace, Gwyllan, Gillian, Gregory, Gribbin, Gateny, Gilbert,Geddes.
H: Higginson, Hull, Heasley,Henry, Holmes, Heney, Hunter, Hare, Hood, Herdman, Hanna, Hamill, Huston, Havron, Hillon, Hickland, Haggins, Henderson, Hill, High, Hopes, Hamilton, Hogg, Hendron, Hunt
I: Ingram, Ireland, Irvine
J: Johnston, Jamieson, Jordan, Jones, Junkin, Jennings, Just
K: Kelan, Kane, Killpatrick, Kelly, Killewney, Kerr, Keys, Kinselagh, Kidd, Kennedy, Kerney, Knairs, Kinley
L: Logan, Lunie, Leathen, L?, Lowry, Lughan, Lavery, Laird, Lorimer, Larmour, Lewis, Letsom, Leslie Lappen, L?, Low, Lyons, Lennon, Livingstonn, Lownsett.
M: Mc Niece, Mulholland, Mc Kane, Magee, McConkey, Mc Curry, Mc Can, McGary, McGrady, McAlister, Morgan, McVeagh, McKevenagh, McCabe, McKerry, McC?, Mullen, McQueelan, M?, Mitchell, McAlpin, McC?, McGucken. McLernon, Matier, Magill, McShane, McDermott, Mullins, Miller, Mc Gomery, Mc Donnell, Mc Ilwain, McMahon, Morris, Munford, Mc Anally, McGolpin, McGlade, Mc Geon, McConnell, Mc Ivor, Mc Call, Mc Ilvenna, Mc Gahy, McLurg, Mc Culloch, McKinney, McHenry, McKennen, McClure, Matthews, McNeight, Moate, Mc William, Mc Ca?, McLoughlin, McCahilly, McIlroy, M?, McAfee, Morrow, McEl?, Murray, Mc Rory, Mc?, McEannell, McMullen, M?, McCully, McClelland, McConachy, Mc Reanna, Mc Court, Mc Collon, Mc Kee, m?. McCormac, May, Mc C?, Mc Clennahan, Mc Corry, Nc Stravock, Mc Alinden, McManus, Maxwell, Mc A?, Mc Caveny, Mc Caver, Mc Aulay, Mc Claverty, Marcel, Mc Garrill, Morrison, Mc Neal, Mark, Martin, Mairs
N: Neeson, Nesbitt, Nichols, Nelson, Neal, Nutt
O: O’Neill, O’Mullin, Oakman, Owens, O’Heney
P: Potts, Palmer, Porter, Phillips, Patterson, Piers, Plunkett, Parker
Q: Quigley, Quinn
R: Rawlins, Rogers, Robinson, Rice, Read, Rabb, Russell, Ramsay
S: Stewart, Sweny, Sloan, Steel, Smith, Shane, Savage, Sherlock, Scott, Sharky, Spence, Stevenson, miley, Shales, Shawcross, Sanders, Simpson, Seales, Sefton, Shutter, Story.
T: Toland, Thompson, Temblety, Taylor, Turner, Totten, Tranlavy, Tallen, Tippen
W: Whittle, Whitla, Walker, Whiteside, Watts, Wilson, White, Wright, Williamson, Woods, Watson, Wilkinson, Wray, Willis, Waters, Welch, Wickliff, Witherup, Webb, Weathers.
Y: Young, Yarr
No 6. A list of birds which frequent Lough Neagh
Green plover lapwing – Ranellus
Rail – Balluscrex
Water-hen – Fulica chlorophus
Coot – Fulica atra
Sand piper – Fraxineus
Swan – Cygnus
Heron – Ardea cinerea
Wild – goose – Anser
Wild-duck – Boscas
Widgeib – Penelops
Teal – Crecca
Bittern – Ardea stellar is
Screech-cock – Turdus viscivorus
Curlew – Scolopax arquata
Snipe – Scolopax gallinago
Jack snipe – Scolopax gallinula
Woodcock – Scolopax reticular
Jay – Cervus Glandarius